Saturday, March 14, 2020
No Escape essays No Escape Don't leave the hashish lying around. That's the mistake three American buddies make in Malaysia, on the very day that two of them, Sheriff (Vince Vaughn) and Tony (David Conrad) head back to the States. It started out as a vacation to paradise, Malaysia. Three buddies thought this to be the trip of a lifetime, great women and great marijuana they would always say. However the small mistake they make winds up costing one friend his life. Sheriff, Tony, and Lewis rented a bike from a local merchant one morning. Cruising down a dirt path they almost collide with an incoming truck and the three of them wind up falling off the bike, crippling it in the act. Lewis knows that they must bring back the bike to the merchant, but Sheriff takes it upon himself to throw the bike into the woods since it is broken anyway. This scene is the beginning of their downfall. It doesnt seem like a big deal at all, no one will find out; Sheriff and head back to the states, and Lewis is staying to rescue orangutans from captivity. The movie then jumps to a scene in New York City two years later, where Sheriff is now a limousine driver. The guy Lewis (Joaquin Phoenix) who is left behind gets busted for drug trafficking since the Malaysian police find more than 1.3 grams of marijuana in his possession. This all happened because the merchant reported his bike stolen which was traced back to Lewis who was the only one of the three left on the island. The police searched his cabana looking for the missing bike but located a stash of hashish instead. Lewis was the only one who could be charged since Tony and Sheriff had returned to the states and he was put in a third world hellhole where he had been rotting away for two years. After two years Lewis state of sanity and physical condition has severely deteriorated. He is going to be executed unless the two other men return to Malaysia and do ...
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Summary - Assignment Example King advocated peace by the application of non-violence tactics because he did not want to associate violence to his achievements. He reversed the traditional approach of using militant groups such as black panthers to seek freedom and power. He instead, initiates the spirit of non-violence and diplomacy as an ethical way of solving conflicts. He also advocated non-violent movements such as marches, boycotts, and political and economic organizations as weapons to justice. He rejected the use of violence as a way to end violence claiming that self-defense would distract attention from the actual fight King and Malcolm XÃ¢â¬â¢s had different ideas towards the achievement of justice and equality. Both had different opinions on ending the oppression of blacks in America making their platforms oppositional. That was evident in 1963 when Malcolm X regarded a Blackman, who did not possess violent revenge notion against their oppressors as a traitor to the Negro community. Non-violent campaigns introduced by King were a breakthrough to freedom as most of the differences resolved diplomatically by negotiations. Non-violence has succeeded in peace in very many countries
Monday, February 10, 2020
Does Receiving a College Education while Incarcerated Influence Convicted Felons Ability to Find a Job - Research Paper Example This project stresses that the overall education attainment of inmates and the formerly incarcerated is considerably below that of the general population in every worldÃ¢â¬â¢s country-this is especially in regard to A and O-levels. In the United States, for example, about half of the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s adults had at least some level of college education. This was inconsequentially the opposite indication because less than 2o per cent of state and federal prisoners had some college education. College education for individual convicts while incarcerated ultimately affects their ability to find jobs. College going for the college students is therefore meant to aid the rehabilitation process and not utterly give the convicts employment. Education is one of the best rehabilitation weapons as some of the felons may have done offense due to the lack of appropriate hunger management skills. Through college education, this would be the beginning of learning basics of life for the felons. This paper makes a conclusion that college education plays a critical role for the felons that are incarcerated particularly with regard to their ability to find a job. The views of the researchers point towards using the educational platform as a tool for rehabilitating the inmates. The starting figures of the prison population foster the need of more effective solutions of making the lives of the prisoners better, for their sake and the sake of society in general. Through education, the lives of the offenders can be significantly improved.
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Information Gathering Obu Essay Every Research Report requires information as the basis for analysis. Information sources can be categorised as either primary or secondary data. There is no requirement for you to collect primary data within your Research Report; it is wholly acceptable to undertake your Research Report using only secondary data. The difference between primary and secondary data is identified below. Primary data is original data that has been collected by a researcher by whatever means appropriate in the answer of a specific research question. . e. it has been collected specifically for the Research Report. Examples of primary data include questionnaires, interviews, e-mail contacts and surveys. If you decide to collect primary data as part of your research work, then you should state and justify the following: ? The data collection techniques you intend to use e. g. questionnaires, interviews. ? Your sample size and an outline of your sampling strategy. ? The method you will use to select your sample and the likely response rate. If you intend to collect primary data from staff within your chosen organisation you must obtain permission to do this from a senior member of staff within the organisation. You should do this as early as possible during your Research Report, since if you are denied access to your desired information sources you may have to reconsider how to meet your project objectives and research questions. Secondary data is data that has been collected by others for their own purposes, but which may be used by a researcher for his or her different purposes. Examples of secondary data include reference material, books, CD ROMs and financial statements. You should always evaluate the appropriateness and relevance of secondary data sources. Information included in internet sources may not be reliable from an academic perspective and may not be appropriate for use in your Research Report. If you decide to use secondary data as part of your research work, you should state and justify your choice to do so. Where you use published secondary data you must provide precise references using the Harvard Referencing System. This is discussed in more detail in the following section. You must retain all of the information that you collected during your project work until you have received official notification of your RAP grade from Oxford Brookes University. This includes any questionnaire responses, copies of financial statements, extracts from journals, reports, magazines etc. Oxford Brookes University may wish to ask you to provide additional evidence of your information gathering following the marking of your Research and Analysis project.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
The Representation of Masculinity and Violence in Henry V and The Rover Representing violence as an essential tool to gaining control, Henry V is dominated by masculine power, in this case, with the control of France. The cast is mainly male, containing just four female characters, namely Mistress Quickly, Isabel Queen of France, Katherine her daughter and Alice, the attendant. The chorus sets the scene of war in the prologue, with Ã¢â¬ËThen should the warlike HarryÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËThat did affright the air at AgincourtÃ¢â¬â¢. This image is further represented when the Archbishop of Canterbury is conferring with the Bishop of Ely about the King, Ã¢â¬ËList his last discourse of war, and you shall hear / A fearful battle rendered you in music. (I.1. 43/44), and further on Ã¢â¬ËHis hours filled up with riotsÃ¢â¬â¢, (I.1. 56). Henry lays responsibilities on others for his actions, justifying these actions by appealing to the church for answers, a Christian King, putting all his trust in God. In his speech to the Archbishop of Canterbury, Henry threatens the violence of war, as he appeals to him with Ã¢â¬ËFor God doth know how many now in health / Shall drop their blood in approbation / Of what your reverence shall incite us to. / Therefore take heed how you impawn our person, / How you awake our sleeping sword of war.Ã¢â¬â¢ (I.2.18-22), placing responsibility on Canterbury for the violence that will ensue from him usurping the French Sovereignty. Canterbury confirms HenryÃ¢â¬â¢s entitlement to France with his ancestors having held it, also stating that the Salic law is not upheld in France, this being that Ã¢â¬ËNo woman shall succeed in Salic landÃ¢â¬â¢ (I.2. 39). He states Ã¢â¬ËT... ... horror at this sight, that tells thee, / Thou hast not long to boast thy shameful conquest?Ã¢â¬â¢ (P.235 The Rover). In conclusion, Henry V seems to maintain gender boundaries, with masculinity being active alongside violence. Whereas The Rover stands between the acceptance of masculine power and female dominance. Bibliography OWENS, W.R. and GOODMAN, Lizbeth, Ed. Shakespeare, Aphra Behn and the Canon (London: Routledge in association with the Open University, 1996). BEHN, Aphra. Oroonoko, The Rover and other works (London: Penguin, 1992). SHAKESPEARE, William. Henry v (London: Penguin, 1968, 1996). Audio / Visual TV 3: The Authentick & Ironicall Historie of Henry V VC 1: A210 Approaching Literature: The Rover Audio Cassette 6: Henry V AC2125 Audio Cassette 7: Henry V AC2126
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
Customer service Customer service is any part of the service that customers receive from the staff of the business. It is also a way in which the organisation deals with its customers. Businesses need their customers to buy their products or use their services in order to survive and make a profit. The way that they treat their customers is therefore very important. Many businesses have a policy of customer service, which involves putting the customer first in all situations. Customer service involves: * Making sure the product range is available to the customer * Making sure the product is safe and reliable * Providing information about products and being able to give advice * Making sure the product range can be delivered if necessary * Providing credit facilities where appropriate * Providing after sales service guarantees It should be the aim of every business to provide the highest level of customer service. There are laws, which provide protection to customers buying products. Businesses should know what their obligations are under these laws.it will help them maintain a high level of customer service. Why customer service is important in Halifax Customer service is important to Halifax because it brings in profit (the more customers the more the profit). The customers provide income to Halifax. Halifax does so much advertising and looses money but because it provides good customer service, the money lost is replaced. Customers are also a source of market research information Customers ensure the survival of the business Because of good customer service, Halifax spends less effort dealing with customer complaints. Customers are relined and refrained in Halifax because they are treated well and are made to feel good and safe with their money and properties. HalifaxÃ¢â¬â¢s image is improved This is because everyone knows that it provides good customer service. My friend told me how good Halifax is and I was attracted to go and open up an account with them the next day. I also told my boyfriend about it that also went and opened up an account with them. To build customer loyalty All HalifaxÃ¢â¬â¢s customers are loyal to it and they keep on using more of its services. They enjoy them. Increase competition It is only natural that where there is an attractive market, competitors will seek to obtain profitable businesses. The newcomer may sometimes even have an advantage due to the fact that he may have benefited from the experience of the long established supplier. As the newcomers start from scratch, they can use the latest equipment, techniques and systems and can select staff to fit the image they wish to create. Good customer service also gives Halifax a competitive advantage over other banks or building societies. Better informed customers Customers know a great deal more about HalifaxÃ¢â¬â¢s services than they used to, partly because of the competition and partly due to the extensive studies conducted by consumer groups, and Halifax staff. A great deal of information is also available over the Internet. The emphasis put into competitive advertisements also makes customers more aware of the aspects they should examine. Halifax is a very good example where public pressure has forced regulations ensuring fuller disclosure of costs and more realistic estimates of benefits. Product similarity From the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view, who I interviewed, it is difficult to distinguish many of HalifaxÃ¢â¬â¢s services from those of their competitors. They often use the same services perform the same tasks in a very similar way. As an example, I could look at the personal computer industry, where a large number of computers can utilise the same software programs. One of the few ways Halifax can differentiate thereselfs from there competitors is by means the image for customer care that they build up and the reputation for customer support that they have earned over time. Rinsing demand for improved support With the choice of supply sources now available to Halifax customers they know that they are in a buyerÃ¢â¬â¢s market and they are therefore demanding improved support from the Halifax they have selected. In general it has been shown that with a higher living standard, customers are willing to pay for improved support. For instance customers in the past may have been willing to wait for a week or two for a telephone to be installed whereas now they expect it to be done in as many days. Life cycle costs As many products are technically more soficicated, customers have become more dependent on the continuing support from Halifax to keep their services in operation. They are increasingly looking at the life time costs and HalifaxÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to support their services efficiently throughout the life of that service. When a customer buys a car for instance, he will want to know how good the maintenance service is what the costs are likely to be the fuel consumption and the resale value after a certain number of years. Training the frontline This is important because it means good customer service in Halifax in a way that when all staff are trained, there will be good communication between the staff hence providing good customer service. Training helps Halifax maintain good service in different departments. For example technology, promotional, health and safety, money wise. Managers in Halifax identify training needs for internal customers and provide suitable training events. Halifax is aware that well trained internal customer service provides good external customer service. Identification of the situations that require staff to have contact with customers A customer is a person who requires a product in exchange for money or who uses a service. Staff can have contact with customers through so many ways these are: By phone This is normally used when one of them (customer/staff) needs to ask a question and get a quick response.because both the staff and customers cannot see each other, it is unable to observe the other personÃ¢â¬â¢s body language. Though this happens, customers are not left waiting. The member of staff says what he is doing and how long he will be. The customer is always being informed of the actions taken. Music is often played to customers kept waiting in order to give them something to do, i.e. listen to music. The staff make sure they do everything they can to make the customer feel valued. Through letters This is used when a permanent record is needed. Eg.where a letter head showing the Halifax logo adds credibility to the company. Sentences are always kept short in the letters. The subject is always introduced at the beginning of the letter so that the customers know what the letter is about. Through Internet This is used when you can not get someone on the phone. The email is given an effective tittle, which makes the reader want to open it. They are not typed in capitals because the reader may think that the member of staff is shouting. Face to face This is done when the customer is on the premises. Usually when delivering bad or good news. Also when a permanent record is not required. Or when documents have to be handed in for opening new accounts. Through fax This is used when speed is required and the information is not confidential. This applies to letters. Staff always contact customers about: * Details about the new extra services introduced * Their bank accounts * Their mortgages * Their complaints * Opening bank accounts * Overdrafts * Foreign exchange purchase transfer * Withdrawal or payment * New service products etc Ways in which Halifax meets the needs of its customers Halifax is a successful firm because it identifies who its customers are and what their needs are quickly. Needs of internal customers Needs of external customers Sick pay To make a purchase Holidays Need to obtain information about a product Pension Company cars To make a complaint Staffs discount To maintain ethical standards Working conditions e.g. Safe environment Specials needs like the deaf, blind, old, physically handicapped, or with children. Job security Food Decent wages or salary. Christmas presents and bonus/ end year party Staff facilities e.g. room, gyms, toilets. Training. Training of internal customers in all aspects of their jobs ensures that external customer needs are catered for, whereas good staff relations or industrial relations, effective communication and good company policies ensures the satisfaction of internal customer needs. Internal customers These are members of staff who rely on other members of staff to help them do their jobs properly. In Halifax, internal customersÃ¢â¬â¢ feedback is included in performance reviews. Halifax is now making input a formal part of a 360-degree feedback process, in which employees, peers and the manager all evaluate the performance of managers. In addition. Halifax talks to its internal customers during meetings and asks them about their needs and finds out how it can serve them better. Ã¢â¬ËAlways giving you extraÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ ¦ as long as the employees do it for their customers, theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll do it for the employees. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re looking to develop the best motivated and best rewarded team in the business, so the employees should expect plenty. Training, sales support, personal development, opportunity, great incentivesÃ¢â¬ ¦ you name it, Halifax goes that extra mile to make sure the employees have everything they need for a rewarding career. And that, of course, includes a benefits package they find hard to beat Ã¢â¬â by anyone, anywhere. It covers everything theyÃ¢â¬â¢d expect (good salary, generous holidays) and plenty that they wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t, such as bonuses and incentives, share schemes, discounted mortgages and plenty moreÃ¢â¬ ¦ all adding up to a total rewards package to match their total commitment. The following are part of HalifaxÃ¢â¬â¢s human resource policies: Pay (plus bonuses) Generous Holiday Entitlement Shares Colleague Products Money Purchase Pension Life Assurance Flexible Working Flexible Benefits Recognition Our commitment Support when it counts Academy Pay (plus bonuses) Halifax starts by giving employees a highly attractive basic salary. They have bands, but thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a lot of flexibility. So theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll take into account the nature of the role, as well as the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ skills and experience. On top of this, everyone has the chance to earn more by putting in Ã¢â¬ËextraÃ¢â¬â¢. So employees can earn a bonus for individual, team and company performance. Reach or exceed the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ targets for example, and the employees can expect to receive between 10% and 30% of salary Ã¢â¬â extra! Nice. Generous Holiday Entitlement The employees receive between 22 and 30 days paid holiday a year, depending on their role and length of service. Shares Halifax group wants employees to share in their success (they like smiling people). They wonÃ¢â¬â¢t go into detail here, but there are various schemes where employees receive either shares or share options. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s hugely popular. Largely because it can be hugely profitable for HalifaxÃ¢â¬â¢s colleagues. Colleague Products Halifax is the UKÃ¢â¬â¢s number one for savings and mortgages, and have plenty of other products too, such as insurance and healthcare. All of which are available to employees at attractive, discounted rates. External customers These are individuals and business customers who buy or use the goods and services provided by an organisation. With staff who can speak a wider range of languages, Halifax and customer service has improved. They monitor holiday costs constantly to give customers a better deal. Plus, they can give customers a guaranteed minimum 5% discount on a wide range of brochure-priced holidays and charter flights! Halifax also meets its customersÃ¢â¬â¢ needs by giving eye contact, explaining transferred telephone calls to customers and colleagues, being genuine and sincere, knowing about their products or services, knowing about its policies, treating customers as individuals, and minimising queuing times. Home delivery For home delivery, orders placed in a branch or over the phone before 2.30pm Monday to Friday are usually delivered to the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s home address by 12 noon the next bank working day (excluding Saturdays). Orders placed on Saturday or Sunday are usually delivered by 12 noon the following Tuesday. All home deliveries are by Royal Mail Special Delivery. There is a charge of Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½5 for all home deliveries. Home delivery is not available for orders placed online. Always giving extra to customers with particular needs Halifax group is committed to providing all their customers with excellent service, whatever type of relationship they have with them. They do their outmost to help all customers with special needs. Their cash machines are generally installed at a lower level to make them easier to reach, and the newer machines have been adapted for the visually impaired to use. Halifax has around 800 branches in the UK, most, of which are open plan to make it easier for customers to find their way around. The majority have a reception desk, with seating provided. And their staff are always on hand to discuss specific needs or answer queries. Wheelchair users Getting in and out of HalifaxÃ¢â¬â¢s branches is usually easy, with level or ramped access from pavements. And, wherever possible, doors are automatic. Call Assistance At some branches steps are unavoidable, so a Ã¢â¬ËCall AssistanceÃ¢â¬â¢ bell system was installed, so that a member of staff can be called. Servicecall Some branches are fitted with the Ã¢â¬ËServicecallÃ¢â¬â¢ system, so that customers with a Servicecall transmitter can alert staff of their arrival. Lifts Where branches have split-level banking halls, Halifax provides internal ramps or wheelchair lifts. Low-level counters and counter queuing rails Lower level writing surfaces are increasingly being provided at the counter. All branches have counter queuing rails, often with lower level writing surfaces. Other banking options To help make it easier for all their customers to manage their finances at their convenience, they offer a number ways to access Halifax as well as via other large network of branches across the country: Online Customers can apply for a Halifax Current Account online. Then once it is registered for telephone banking they can do their banking online via HalifaxÃ¢â¬â¢s website 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Click www.halifax.co.uk for more details. They also offer a Share Dealing service online, and applications for other products such as Personal Loans, Credit Cards and Travel Insurance can be made via the web site. Telephone Halifax Direct is a 24-hour telephone Current Account service. Customers can use it for everything from checking their balance and ordering a statement to arranging an overdraft. Arrangements can also be made for customers to pay bills and transfer money to other Halifax accounts. All Halifax customers can telephone Halifax direct for other services, for example a Personal Loan or travel money. Customers who are hearing impaired, can contact Halifax Direct using textphone on 0845 732 3436 Contact Halifax They have undertaken an extensive disability awareness programme to help staff overcome the barriers which people who have a disability face. To help them continually improve their services, if you would like to make any comments about their site or the services they offer customers with disabilities, they request the customers to use this form. Philomena Gray, Disability Manager by e-mail: JayneOÃ¢â¬â¢Connell@HBOSPlc.com or at:Halifax plc Trinity Road HALIFAX West Yorkshire HX1 2RG How Halifax deals with customersÃ¢â¬â¢ complaints Once Halifax is prepared for any potential problem a customer may have brought to them, their next step is to use the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s complaint system the company has in place for dealing with complaints. Halifax deals with complaints in many different ways. This can be done through: 1. The telephone 2. Face to face 3. In writing: typical written communications involve providing information on the services provided, prices of mortgages, statements of accounts and safety procedures. Because Halifax actively seeks and encourages complaints, they are able to understand and meet the needs of their customers. If a customer is dissatisfied and is unable to express that dissatisfaction, Halifax will never see that customer return. What is worse, the customer may also persuade potential customers not to stop within Halifax too. Customers with bad experiences were twice as likely to tell others about it as those with a positive story to recount. Customer complaints are viewed as opportunities to improve a service offered rather than problems ignored. The causes of the complaints are dealt with the and lessons learnt. Customers making complaints are seen as contributors to the process of improving customer services rather than awkward individuals who enjoy making life difficult for staff. By respecting customers and treating them accordingly Halifax is able to monitor and improve the quality of service offered. Many products arise because the law has been broken. There is a large number of laws that try to protect the customers. Halifax tries not to break the laws. The major consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ laws include; The descriptions Act 1978, which makes it illegal for Halifax as a business to give misleading descriptions of their services and products. The consumer safety Act 1978, which make sit illegal to sell goods, which may be harmful to customers. The consumer protection Act 1987, which makes it illegal, amongst other things, for a business to claim that its prices have been reduced when they have not. It also makes suppliers responsible for any injury that results from defective goods. The consumer credit Act 1974, which requires Halifax to have a specific licence because it offers credit otherwise they will be committing an offence. If the law has been broken, customers can take Halifax to court. This may cause the business money and give it a bad reputation. That is why they make sure that they do not break the law. Halifax also makes it certain that customers are happy with the services they provide. Details of all customersÃ¢â¬â¢ complaints are recorded. This is done so that there is a record of what action was taken in case the customer wishes to take the complaint further. Recording the data also allows staff and management to use it for capturing customer details. The nature of complaint and the service involved is recorded and quite often the name and address of the person complaining is recorded. Halifax has a special service desk for dealing with customer complaints, and also specially trained staff. When customers approach with a complaint Halifax staff make sure they: * Listen to them carefully * Reassure them that their complaint is being taken seriously * Decide on an appropriate action * Apologise if the business is responsible * Record the details of the complaint * Record the action taken Checking that customerÃ¢â¬â¢s complaint is valid Halifax wonÃ¢â¬â¢t take customersÃ¢â¬â¢ complaint seriously if itÃ¢â¬â¢s something, which is not their fault. For example, if your current account has no overdraft facility but you regularly overdraw the account, you canÃ¢â¬â¢t really complain if Halifax charges you for doing so. If, however, charges on your account push the balance into the red, it should not charge you for being overdrawn. Halifax deals with complaints about something in relation to: * Customer expectations not met * Late delivery * Incorrect information * Waiting/queuing times * Attitude of staff * Faulty service products * Statement errors What happens next? If a customerÃ¢â¬â¢ complaint is something Halifax has the power to deal with, they will usually start by seeing if they can help the customer to resolve matters in an informal way. One of their staff (usually called a caseworker) will take a fresh look at the facts and let the customer know how they think the customer could reach the agreement. This approach is often called mediation. If a customer has a problem, Halifax can always help They aim to offer customers the best possible service, but there may be occasions when customers feel they have cause for complaint. If so, Halifax will always try to resolve the problem quickly and to your satisfaction. If the customer is unhappy with their response, he/she can take his complaint further through their complaints procedure outlined below. Following HalifaxÃ¢â¬â¢s complaints procedure does not affect a customerÃ¢â¬â¢s legal rights. 1. Where the customer first makes his complaint Halifax aims to resolve customersÃ¢â¬â¢ concerns within 24 hours. Sometimes it may take longer to look into the matter fully. If this happens, they will let the customer know within five working days who will reply. The people a customer first raise the matter with are often able to help, but there may be occasions when a specialist area needs to be involved. If the customer doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t know who to contact, they can: * Call Customer Relations on 08457 25 35 19 * Textphone Customer Relations on 08456 00 17 50 (if you have a hearing impairment) * Write to them at: Halifax plc Halifax Customer Relations Trinity Road Halifax HX1 2RG They will then arrange for the right person to look into and respond to the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s concerns. 2. Customer Relations In the unlikely event that the customer remains unhappy, he /she can ask for his complaint to be referred to a Customer Relations manager for further review. If the customer is still not satisfied he can, at this stage, ask the Financial Ombudsman Service to help, or for service-related complaints about Halifax Estate Agencies Limited, the Ombudsman for Estate Agents The Halifax supports fully and is a member of both the Ombudsmen Schemes. These are impartial and conduct independent investigations. Ombudsmen addresses For most complaints about Halifax products and services customers can contact: The Financial Ombudsman Service South Quay Plaza 183 Marsh Wall London E14 9SR Phone: 08450 80 18 00 email: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.financial-ombudsman.org.uk For complaints about Halifax Estate Agencies Limited: The Ombudsman for Estate Agents Beckett House 4 Bridge Street SALISBURY SP1 2LX Phone: 01722 33 33 06 email: email@example.com Website: www.oea.co.uk Types of customer records Halifax uses Market research The final method of monitoring customer service satisfaction is through market research. Market research is a formalised method of obtained feedback and information from customers or potential customers about services that are available or soon to be made available. In Halifax, obtaining feedback from customers is essential in learning how to improve the service offered. The process helps Halifax to understand: * The nature of the service from the point of view of the customer. * What the customers are wanting. * What the customer thinks of the organisation. * What will make the customer feel valued? * What sort of initiatives the customers would appreciate. Halifax is able to show that business decisions are supported by information and evidence gained through research. Therefore through market research, Halifax is able to identify customersÃ¢â¬â¢ opinions about: * Interest rates charged. * New and existing services. * After sales service. * The quality of customer care provided by Halifax. Business decisions about these issues can then be made based upon the results of the research. Halifax sends out customer service questioners to 200,000 customers every six months, asking for their opinions on their branch. In addition, Ã¢â¬Ëmystery shoppersÃ¢â¬â¢ posing as potential customers visit and phone the branches to ask for advice. Each quarter, every branch in Halifax network receives two visits and two phone calls from the mystery shopper, who then fills in the research form and marks the branch on factors such as courtesy, speed, and phone handling techniques. All the results are included into a customer service index for each Branch. The findings are also published internally or all to see, with awards for those branches with the best achievements. The market research I undertook about Halifax provided some interesting results. I decided to measure how much customer satisfaction dictated future buying intentions. The research divided the customers into one of three groups: * Those with problem that had been resolved * Those with a problem that had been recently dealt with * Those whose experience of the bank had only been positive As was predictable, the customers who remained dissatisfied were the ones least likely to buy any more of the building societyÃ¢â¬â¢s services. However, surprisingly, those customers whose problem had been dealt with quickly and efficiently were more likely to use HalifaxÃ¢â¬â¢s services again in the future than customers who had never experienced a problem. 80% of the customers were happy and 20% were not happy. Among the unhappy customers some of them did not visit the branches often nor use HalifaxÃ¢â¬â¢s machines. Customers responded positively to open, polite and helpful advice provided by Halifax, even if the outcome was not what the customer was seeking, e.g. applying bank charges. Findings similar to Halifax have emerged from other customer attitude surveys undertaken across a range of businesses. The results of my surveys indicate that by keeping the customers happy, the organisations will retain existing business and will increase future revenue from existing customers. It is essential that a manager act upon any feedback gained through market research. Customers who provide feedback through market research are usually given recognition by Halifax. I also found out that when Halifax do their market research through the surveys, they thank their customers for their time and effort. This is in the form of a card, letter, or telephone call. A number of methods are used by Halifax to find out what the customer thinks of and wants from the service. These include: * Postal questioners. * Personal interviews. * Telephone interviews. * Consumer panels. * Customer feedback forms. Complaints records In Halifax, recording customer complaints and implementing changes to ensure that the customer is not dissatisfied for the same reason again are ways to monitor customer satisfaction. Customers are provided with a system where they feel comfortable about recording a complaint. Only by doing so can Halifax ensure that they are fully meeting the needs of all their customers. When Halifax is dealing with customer complaints, they normally take the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s details. This normally helps them to be able to contact the customer when necessary and to know who they are dealing with. Customer Surveys Customer surveys are used to get inside the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s mind and learn what they are thinking about Halifax. Surveys can determine customer satisfaction, complaints, compliments and questions. Halifax likes to know what their customers are thinking because it helps them improve or tailor their services. Feedback can be a great source of information. Customer surveys can sometimes be a core competency of Halifax. Surveys can be administered online, in person or even via phone. Surveys should be constructed to pull the most valuable data from employees so that Halifax can later use that data for the betterment of the company. Savings and Debit cards When opening up savings or bank accounts, the staff records your personal details and keep them for further reference. At times this is used to contact customers to participate in surveys, to take advantage of new offers, etc. Internal Complaints When the employees make a complaint, Halifax also takes down their comments and again their details. Personnel records The personnel department keeps records of all employees on the payroll. This includes personal information (name, date of birth, address) as well as details of rates of pay, tax, and national insurance number. The records are confidential and should not be accessible to unauthorised personnel. These records are taken during recruitment. Recruiting When recruiting, managers take employees details for further reference. This helps them to know how much they deserve to be paid to know their retirement age, etc, which can be utilised by the firm to provide good internal customer service. The customer service provided in Halifax and improvements In Halifax, The desire to improve and be the best helps motivate staff by providing them with a challenge. It gives employees the opportunity to suggest ideas, use their initiative and participate in the development of the organisation. Excellent customer service provides a focus for all staff to work towards and results in increased job satisfaction for the employees, as well as increased customer satisfaction. Excellent standards in HalifaxÃ¢â¬â¢s customer service can only be achieved by having a system that enables them to constantly review and improve the service offered. What is an acceptable standard for a customer today will not necessarily be an acceptable standard tomorrow. Constant improvement is essential. Because Halifax is an organisation seeking to improve the quality of customer service offered, it set quality service standards, which are: * Clearly explained * Realistic for employees * Easily measured Having clearly defined standards and a process to monitor those standards gives employees a goal to work towards. 1. Providing information Staff in Halifax provides customers with information, by letting them know what the business has to offer. The information provided is mostly through leaflets and focuses on: *Lost or stolen cards. * Mortgages * Bank Accounts *Loans * Savings and investments *Insurance * Share dealing. The problem to some members of staff is that they provide wrong information to customers. This happens when they are not sure of the answers to the questions being asked by the customers. Halifax improves this by re-training the staff who have the duty of dealing with customer enquiries. They also provide leaflets containing information of the services they offer. 2. Giving advice Customers often expect advice about the services they know little about Halifax. This is likely to happen with mortgages. When people want to open up accounts from Halifax they expect to receive clear instructions and advice on how to use and maintain them. When a business or an individual goes to the bank, they expect that the staff will know a great deal about banking and that sound advice will be given. But in some cases it does not happen. This is because the member of staff gives wrong advice about the service provided and sometimes it leads to the customer changing him/her mind about opening up an account with Halifax. For example when I wanted to open up an account with Halifax, I was told to bring both my parents passports back with me. I was really shocked by that and was wondering why every Bank does not ask for that. Anyway I suddenly gave up because the passports where with the home office. After three months, I called HalifaxÃ¢â¬â¢s head office to ask them why I needed my parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ passports to open up an account yet I had my own passport. The lady on the phone said that it is not right and I should go back to them and tell them that. I spoke to the manager and she said that it is all right for me to use my own passport since I am seventeen. This is why Halifax should train the members of staff going to give customers advice and ensure that they have good knowledge of the service product and procedures. Halifax gives advice on What is the suitable account, loan or action? What is the best mortgage? What is the cheapest way to pay for mortgage? How to use the accounts and cards. How to store and look after the cards. 3. Tailoring the service to what the customer wants HalifaxÃ¢â¬â¢s staff ensure that customers get what they really want and are satisfied with the services. They know that is what will make them come back again. So staff work out very carefully what customers want and need. They know that customers want to be served quickly and efficiently but sometimes the queue is too long because some tills are not utilised. This really annoys the customers and makes them to leave and maybe pay the money to another account they have in a different bank. Halifax should improve this by letting another member of staff cover for the other if they have gone for their breaks and by making sure that any member of staff who is off sick is covered by using staff who do shift work. 4. Providing credit facilities Halifax accepts payment in a variety of ways for example cheques, cash, account transfers. This makes payment more convenient for customers. In the 1990s, Halifax has been facing a great deal of competition and one way of attracting customers is to offer better credit packages than competitors. Actual details of credit terms have therefore become highly variable and now Halifax is trying so hard to provide the best deal. Halifax is required by law to publish the APR and this does allow some basis for comparison. APR (Annual percentage rate of interest). This shows the actual rate of interest that borrowers must pay on average over the full period of the loan. But in some cases, some customers do not receive their interests which cause complaints and this results to the business loosing customers if the others hear about oneÃ¢â¬â¢s complaint. This is normally caused by errors on the computers, which they use to automatically offer interest to an account according to its type. So to improve this problem, Halifax management and staff should make sure that the machines are checked regularly to prevent unnecessary errors lik e that. 5. Credit They also offer credit cards to allow customers to buy goods and services and pay for them when they receive their statements from them, usually at the end of the month. When a customer uses a credit card to pay for an item the shop demands its claim for payment back to the Halifax that then pays the shop. Because Halifax must wait for payment from the customer, they usually charge the shop for the right to let customers use the credit card. This explains why the major supermarkets and a growing number of major stores are now offering their own credit cards. For some credit cards, a high rate is charged which makes Halifax lose its customers. They have improved this by putting the rates at a lower charge in order to attract more customers. 6. Administration This is the management of services that help to support the smooth running of department. Every department in Halifax carries it out. These general administration functions might include; 7. Reception This includes greeting people visiting a specific branch, dealing with their enquiries, and taking outside phone calls and connecting customers to right departments. It is also known as the customer service department. When customers come in the branch to make enquiries, in most circumstances there is a long queue. This really annoys customers in that they will complain and give pressure to the member of staff attending to them which will lead to her making mistakes and giving wrong or incomplete information to the customer she is serving. This can be improved by letting the members of staff who are available (not doing any work at that moment) to help out on the reception. This helps Halifax to deal with customers courteously and promptly. 8. Security Ensuring the security of the building property and staff. If there is no security in Halifax, peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s money will not be safe hence loosing customers because all they want is security and trust from the building society. To improve this, CCTVs are installed in the building to keep track of all that is going on in the premises. Most people who come into the Halifax and find it untidy and dirty get the wrong impression and neglect opening up accounts with them. This has been improved by arranging for outside contractors to clean the building, and cater for staff. The clerical work of making records managing records, filling, photocopying. Organising meetings, keeping minutes. Ensuring that internal communications (within the department) operate smoothing. Ensuring the department staffs arrive on time, have the facilities they need and have been paid. Each department will operate in a slightly different way, so it is highly that different departments will have some administrative tasks that are unique to that department, e.g. The human resources department will have to ensure that it has a complete and accurate database of all employees, with contact addresses and telephone numbers. 9. Providing an efficient service This is done when keeping appointments, Replying to enquiries within the shortest time possible, Fast, efficient and friendly service, helping and assisting the customer, answering all telephone calls within five seconds and following the basic principles when communicating with customers on the telephone. Sometimes all this is not done by the employees. They become rude to the customers and act like they have been forced to do their work. They do this by being very slow when serving on the checkouts and not speaking loudly and clearly on the phone. 10. Ensuring that replies to requests for information are with the customer within a reasonable period of time e.g. three days. Documentation is always up to date and accurate. Letters are addressed personally, well typed and without spelling errors. 11. Dealing with customer complaints Sometimes customersÃ¢â¬â¢ complaints are ignored or forgotten about because the member of staff has too much work to do which makes the customers loose interest in Halifax. This can be improved by setting up a Procedure for dealing with customer complaints and problems and since sometimes the procedure is not followed, they should improve this more by establishing a customer service department in each store, appointing a member of staff to be in charge of customer services, Communicating effectively with customers and ensuring that customer complaints are dealt with to the satisfaction of the customer. 12. Reliable systems, facilities and procedures Sometimes when customers come into a Halifax branch to open up an account, they find that the phone or computer does not work. This annoys them and either walk out or complain to the staff, which will disorganise the other services. That is if the customer makes a scene. This is improved up setting up quick and efficient technology with good backup, making sure that customer facilities are kept in good working order, by understanding of procedures by all employees The financial sector is a fast moving and rapidly changing environment. Many of these organisations rely on call centres to handle the huge numbers of enquiries received. Unfortunately high staff turnover is a major problem within many branches, so recruitment of the right candidates as quickly as possible is essential. Recognising the need to make quick recruitment decisions, that are valid, objective and more cost effective, Halifax Plc developed a new recruitment process, which met their criteria. Some years ago the Halifax implemented a competency-based application form, using job relevant competencies that are scored through a standardised procedure, and found they could make initial selection decisions quickly, confidently and objectively. For this project the Halifax saw the need to review their competencies in the light of organisational changes. They reviewed their initial selection process, to ensure that the competencies to be used were still appropriate given organisational changes, and the increased organisational emphasis was on business related competencies. The first stage involved reviewing a number of job roles to identify the key job tasks. The results from this early stage were used to develop a telephone checklist. The checklist is used as an initial sifting mechanism, aimed at ensuring that applicants are aware of job demands before they are sent the application form, thus reducing the administrative burden. Before the final structured application form was written a concurrent validation was conducted on a trial group of current job incumbents to identify the key competencies. It was found that specific competencies from the application form correlated highly with managerÃ¢â¬â¢s ratings of performance, additionally these competencies also correlated highly with the Customer Contact ability test scores of job incumbents. This suggested that people with higher scores on the competency based questionnaire and the ability tests are far more likely to perform better in the job than those applicants who perform poorly on the competency based application form. The Halifax is just one example of where Structured Application Forms have been used successfully. 12. Employee feedback system An employee feedback system is a structured approach to recording employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ views and suggestions about the service provided and ways in which to improve that service. In Halifax, employees deal with the customersÃ¢â¬â¢ daily and therefore are able to provide useful advice and information to the employer about the views of customers and whether the service provided meets the needs of the customers. Very often, the employees can make valuable suggestions about how to improve the quality of service offered. 14. Quality review system This is a structured system in Halifax that enables an employer to determine the quality of service being offered to customers and the response of customers to that service. A check sheet or rating form can be used to identify the key areas to be audited. The manager will use the form to review at regular intervals the standard of service provided and customersÃ¢â¬â¢ responses against the criteria. An employer quality review system involves the manager being out where the customers are and seeing the activities taking place. The system involves the manager observing, examining and evaluating the quality of service offered by different employees in different sections or departments. The manager also listens carefully to customersÃ¢â¬â¢ questions, because the issues raised forms part of the evaluation of customer service. A description of any legal constraints affecting the customer service situation There are five main Acts of parliament Halifax knows and they understand the rights they should give to buyers. Most of these Acts are joined towards firms that sell products rather than service products. The sale of goods Act 1979 and 1995 One of the most important Acts today is the sale of goods Act 1979. It covers the fundamental requirements of purchasers, i.e. that goods must be: * As described which means that they should conform their description for example water proof must mean that the items do not leak. * Of satisfactory quality in relation to the price paid, the description, age of the item. * Fit for the purpose for which they are intended which means that goods must carry out the purpose they are made for, i.e. a pen must make a clear legible mark. * The goods must be for a specific purpose the buyer has made clear to the seller at the time of the sale. The supply of goods and services Act 1982 The service standards are affected by this Act. It states that all services should be carried out: * For a reasonable charge * Within a reasonable time * With reasonable care and skill * Using satisfactory materials The consumer protection Act 1987 This Act relates to price and safety. The consumer protection Act is enforced by Trading Standards Officers. It is also an offence not to cooperate with Trading Standards Officers during any investigation. Under the Act it is an offence: * To mislead consumers as to the price of goods, services, accommodation or facilities (e.g. by missing out the VAT when quoting the price) * To mislead consumers over sale prices and claim exaggerated price reductions * To supply goods which are not reasonably safe. The trade description Act 1968 This Act is designed to prevent the false or misleading description of goods, e.g.: * Selling goods, which are wrongly described by the manufacturer. * Implied descriptions, e.g. a picture on a box, which gives a false impression. * Other aspects of the goods, including quantity, size, composition, method of manufacture etc. Usually the spoken word of the seller overrides the written description of the goods as the buyer can rely on the expertise of the salesperson. However, this is obviously harder to prove if there is dispute. The consumer credit Act 1974 This is more applicable to Halifax and requires all businesses, which offer credit to have a specific licence otherwise they will be committing an offence. The Act provides for: * Customers who sign credit agreement in their own home to be allowed a cooling off period of five days. During this period the customer can change her mind or cancel the agreement without any penalties. * Customers to demand within 28 days that retailers provide details of the name and address of any credit reference agencies, which have been used to ascertain their credit worthiness. It is an offence for a retailer not to do this. * The credit reference agency to provide full details to the customer if the request is made in writing, and small administration fee is paid. Any incorrect information must be corrected if further information is provided by the customer. * Advertisements offering credit must include the title charge for credit and the APR (annual percentage rate of charge). The Act also restricts the way in which advertisements are worded and the prominence of financial information relating to charges. * Sellers must provide written details of credit terms if requested by the customer in writing or orally, either in person or on the telephone, unless such a quotation has already been provided. The Health and Safety at Work Act 1978 Not only do employees have a right to expect employers to provide a safe, working environment, they also have a responsibility to ensure the Health and Safety for existing and potential customers. The Health and Safety at Work Act requires employees to: * Take reasonable care for the Health and Safety of themselves and others who may be affected by what they do and what they fail to do. * Cooperate with employers in fulfilling their duties for Health and Safety. Employees who fail to comply with health and safety regulations may be prosecuted. The requirements basically mean that employees must not act recklessly at work. They must follow safety procedures. They must take reasonable care in carrying out their duties and employers should fulfil their obligation as prescribed in the Health and Safety at Work Act. The sex discrimination Act 1975 This Act makes it illegal for anyone to be discriminated against on grounds of gender either directly or indirectly. Even if this is done unintentionally, the organisation is still guilty. So Halifax has to comply with the provisions of this Act. Race relations Act The race relation Act is very similar to the sex discrimination Act. It makes it illegal to discriminate in the work place on the grounds of race, colour, nationality or ethnic origin. Disability discrimination Act Under this Act it is illegal to discriminate against a disabled person in the recruitment and selection process, the contract of employment and the conditions of pay, provisions of training and promotion opportunities, treatment with the workplace. Halifax is expected by law to comply with the provisions of the various Acts. The Health and safety Act 1978 affects both the internal and external customers. Implications of not complying with the provisions of the consumer laws or legal requirement are: * Costs: legal costs of going to court and compensation. * Bad reputation: Negative / Bad publicity hence loss of customers leading to the company collapsing. The roles of the employees in providing good customer service Internal customers Halifax has so many different branches throughout the UK. All of these are internal customersÃ¢â¬â¢ to the regional or Ã¢â¬Ëhead officeÃ¢â¬â¢. Staff working for Halifax are the internal customers. Managers in Halifax want to get the most out of your employees. Generally, the better their employees perform the better their department or company will do. Recruiting the right people Recruiting the right staff is a crucial component of creating the workforce profile Halifax needs to achieve its organisational objectives and they take careful planning and consideration to recruit successfully. While Halifax wants staff who can do the job theyÃ¢â¬â¢re offering and who are interested in it, the crucial factor in choosing the right team is personality. The managers can teach them the job, but they canÃ¢â¬â¢t teach them how to be the right person! Because managers are responsible for recruitment and selection decisions in Halifax, they are aware that hiring or losing staff can be costly, especially if they get it wrong. Smart appearance of all staff Customers will often assess the quality of Halifax by the appearance of the staff. This has been improved by providing them with uniforms which all of them have to wear and this helps the customers to recognise the members of staff easily. Politeness When employees understand and feel a part of the larger picture they provide better customer service because they feel better about their roles and understand the critical nature of their jobs to the overall success of Halifax. A positive and helpful attitude goes a long way toward having satisfied customers, and is important for a positive environment with co-workers. Employees in Halifax know that they should always be polite to customers and be very helpful. Arriving at work on time Employees make sure that they arrive at work on time because they know that if this is not done, they will lose customers hence loosing profits for they company. When they arrive on time, the branch is also opened on time. Teamwork Teamwork is an important part of building a quality Halifax. Having Halifax work like a team involves getting all of the team members to work together towards one common goal. Teamwork through employee training programs can help Halifax team achieve that goal. Teamwork helps the staff first identify the goal it is working towards, whether thatÃ¢â¬â¢s increasing sales or improving customer service. Once the goals are identified, then they can work on whatever issues may be currently preventing them from achieving those goals. After those issues are addressed, the employees can more effectively work together as a team. Team works can build communication skills and employee motivation. Both of these items contribute to a more successful team and organisation. A successful organisation means more profits, happier employees, and fewer turnovers. The results from a team building exercise can actually help Halifax perform better as a whole. Halifax can benefit by taking time and resources to help their employees achieve their goals by putting them in training program and giving them skills they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know they needed. Teamwork is part of an employee development program that can really benefit Halifax. Health and Safety Health and Safety policies are integral in Halifax business operation. They ensure that the law making employers responsible for the health, safety and welfare of all employees at work is followed. They also help employees to understand and accept their responsibility for their personal behaviour at work as it affects their own, and othersÃ¢â¬â¢ health and safety. Good Health and Safety procedures ultimately save money and prevent lost time through injury and illness. Because Halifax has more than five employees, they have a written Health and Safety Policy and bring a published Statement to all employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ attention. Employees are informed that behaviour against the Health and Safety policy is a disciplinary offence. Part of the Health and Safety procedure is to notify the appropriate enforcing authority for registration, at least one month before servicing starts. Authorities are: * Health and Safety Executive This body, besides providing information for businesses, ensure that Halifax meets the regulated standards for: * Escape routes * Storage of materials * Ventilation * Lighting * Hygiene Carrying out their duties All employees make sure that they carry out their specific duties. Managers should be able to carry out their duties by making sure that employees are happy. They can do this by: Motivation Halifax cannot succeed if their employees are motivated to do a good job. You can motivate employees in any type of work environment. Employee motivation is one of the many keys to HalifaxÃ¢â¬â¢s success. Employee motivation can be achieved through a variety of ways. Employee training programs can be administered on a regular basis. Making an employee feel like they are an important part of Halifax also increases motivation. Appraisals In Halifax, members of staff are interviewed on a regular basis by their line manager and assessed on their performance. It is also an opportunity to discuss any problems and to determine any training and/ or training needs. Performance may be related to pay or bonuses. Care should be taken not present staff appraisal as a hostile or intimidating ordeal. Praise Managers make sure that they praise their staff when they have done well. This makes them happy and also do their job better because they know that their bosses appreciate. Training Managers in Halifax want to get the most out of your employees. Generally, the better their employees perform the better their department or company will do. In Halifax, it is not always possible to find someone who is perfectly suited to a job, with all the necessary skills and experience. They are likely to need some training. This is made even more likely by the fact that as working conditions change, due to new technology, reorganisation, expansion and so on, staff will need training to be able to meet the new challenges. Managers may also provide staff development to enable them to broaden their existing abilities and experiences and to help them achieve their potential for Halifax building society. Finally, motivated staff, teamwork, etc, ensures that employees are committed to their work. Commitment from and carrying out duties and responsibilities by all employees are the prerequisite for good customer service. Good customer service requires input from all employees, and not to be the duty of frontline staff alone.
Monday, January 6, 2020
4.1 Positive outcomes Based on the theories of neo-classical economics, Greener (2008) proposed two main types of benefits of the promotion of markets in welfare service delivery: 1) empowering purchasing power of service users; 2) improve competition and efficiency of providers. These benefits of marketization represent in the field of care for older people. First, the market provision empowers service users to Ã¢â¬Ëexercise consumer sovereigntyÃ¢â¬â¢ (Greener, 2008) through greater opportunities of choices (Daly and Lewis, 2000; Drakeford, 2007). In respect of this, the market could improve quality of services and push the older care move from producer-driven to consumer-driven provision. Second, market mechanism emphasizes the improvement of quality and reduction of costs through competition among providers, which inherently promotes efficiency (Brennan et al., 2012). Yet, there is no agreement of all these benefits has been taken place in practice or not. For example, Lewis and West (2014) argue t hat changes in Ã¢â¬Ëgreater choiceÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËflexibilityÃ¢â¬â¢, and Ã¢â¬ËresponsivenessÃ¢â¬â¢ is very little, but the cost has been saved indeed. The benefits of ideal market have certain conditions: enough information to both buyers and sellers; duly influence on price per unit; and no sunk costs for entering and exiting the market (Greener, 2008). In the field of social care, itÃ¢â¬â¢s difficult to reach these conditions (Land and Himmelweit, 2010). As Brennan and his colleagues (2012) argued, an ideal care marketShow MoreRelatedThe United States Of Inequality Essay1153 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesrealities we face in our country today, with regards to income inequality. Income inequality in the United States is at a rise. And the sobering factor is that so little is being done to address this issue. According to a new study by researchers at the Economic Policy Institute, forces of rising inequality are operating at an all-time high throughout the United States. The study, Ã¢â¬Å"which measures income inequality by state, metro area and county, shows that inequality has risen in every state since the 1970sRead MorePost-Keynesia n Economic Essay1317 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Post-Keynesian economic was formed and developed by economists such as Joan Robinson and Nicholas Kaldor who believed Keynesian economics was based on disequilibrium and uncertainty, and that challenges the general equilibrium assumptions of neo-classical theory. The main aim of post-Keynesian economics is to complete the unfinished Keynesian revolution. Post-Keynesian economists fundamentally used ideas from Keynes and his concept of effective demand, Marxist economist Michael Kalecki to provideRead MoreThe Socialization And Dilution Of Marxist Theory Essay1701 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesof Marxist Theory in the Post-WWII Era In Antonio GramsciÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Hegemonic TheoryÃ¢â¬ in The Prison Notebooks, the Neo-Marxist ideology of cultural and social monopolies is the underlying source of bourgeoisie corruption and economic dysfunction. GramsciÃ¢â¬Ës view of capitalist fascist ideology had failed to understand the complexity of capitalism as a system that dominated academia, the mass media, and other forms of institutionalization that co-opted Marxist leftists movements in the economic booms of theRead Moredevelopment studies1392 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesUNIVERSITY OF ZAMBIA, SCHOOL OF HUMANITIES AND SOCIAL SCIENCES, DEPARTMENT OF DEVELOPMENT STUDIES. Name: Computer No. : Course: DEV 2150 Tutor; Task: Present and discuss the various theories that are used to account for social and political change in developing countries. State by giving reasons, the theory you think is most suitable to understanding social and political change in developing countries. Developing countries have encountered perpetual shifts in culturalRead MoreBehavioral Economics Essay598 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesIntroduction Behavioral economics studies cognitive, emotional and social factors effects on economic decisions made by an individuals and consequences returns, resource allocation and market prices. It assumes that human beings are rational in the decisions they make. Behavioral economics do not involve assumption. The difference comes in from the notion that the human behavior observation contradicts behavior of people to be perfectly rational. Therefore, the two starts from different points.Read MoreEvolution Of Development Policy And Its Impact On Region Disparities Essay1099 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSearch of Convergence of Real Per Capita Incomes Md. Mofidul Hassan M Phil Scholar, Department of Economics Gauhati University, Guwahati 781014 (Abstract) After three decades of quantitative control regime, development policy in India had a liberalized mold in the 1980s. Unleashing of full-fledged reform process since 1991 was followed by significant step-up in the rate of economic growth in the country. But as the evidence of unequal distribution of gains of higher growth startedRead MoreNeo Classical Model1134 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesNeo classical theory: An economic theory that outlines how a steady economic growth rateÃ will be accomplished with the proper amounts of the three driving forces: labor, capital and technology.Ã The theory states that by varying the amounts of labor and capital in the production function, an equilibrium state can be accomplished. When a new technology becomes available, the labor and capital need to be adjusted to maintain growth equilibrium. This theory emphasizes that technology changeRead MoreA Critique Of Capitalism And The Power Of The Bourgeoisie Class1744 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCritical Theory is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"is a critique of capitalism, its appropriation of the surplus value of collective work, and its commodification of every aspect of our modern societyÃ¢â¬ (Ward, p.1). In this essay I will argue that although perhaps not inherently intentionally, both liberal and realism, in all of their forms, represent hegemonic ideology, and that this has been proven throughout history, and therefore support much of Marxist theory surrounding capitalism and the power of the bourgeoisieRead MoreSolution to the Current Global Economy: Judaism and Economic Reform, by Norman Solomon1103 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIn the essay Ã¢â¬Å"Judaism and Economic ReformÃ¢â¬ , Norman Solomon, a Jewish-American journalist, presents a compelling argument on the basis of the need for economic reform while providing simple religious base solutions. While discussing two major economic problems that plague the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s current economy, Solomon introduces the Jewish view of the global economy and their general view on economics as a whole. With this introduction to the Jewish worldview of economics we as readers are able to transitionRead MoreAccounting Essay1593 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesresponsibility and should be blame. Audit in agency theory Agency theory and auditÃ¢â¬â¢s role Ã¢â¬Å"Agency theory is part of the positivist group of theories which derives from the financial economics literatureÃ¢â¬ (Michael, 1994). It requires the companies or organizations establish a contract between the real owners of economic entity and managers, the principals and agent, and let managers represent them to control and use their economic resource (Michael, 1994). Currently, more and more companies